The following publication entitled “Online Voting in Indigenous Nations: Lessons from Canada” was included in Lecture Notes in Computer Science.


Most studies of online voting examine adoption at national and subnational levels or among municipal governments. Very few examinations, however, focus on implementation in Indigenous communities. Drawing on community-engaged survey work with three First Nations in Canada Ð TsuutÕina Nation, Wasauksing First Nation and Whitefish River First Nation, 28 interviews with Indigenous leaders, identified experts, online voting vendors and federal government representatives as well as a focus group, we examine why Indigenous communities in Canada are drawn to online voting, who is using it, potential impacts on participation, and good practices that can be learnt from these experiences. Our findings suggest broad support for online voting and satisfaction from Indigenous voters. Though online voters tend to be older, educated, wealthier and live off reserve, survey results indicate online ballots could engage some Indigenous electors to vote more frequently. Notably, we find that online voting is a critical tool to reach and engage off reserve citizens. Finally, we outline a number of good practices for online voting deployment that fall into four themes: (1) community knowledge and engagement (2) tools and strategies, (3) clear processes and re-sources, and (4) a focus on technology


Goodman, Nicole, Chelsea Gabel and Brian Budd (2018). “Online Voting in Indigenous Nations: Lessons from Canada”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 67-83.

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